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tv   American Artifacts Americans and the Holocaust Exhibit - Part 2  CSPAN  January 6, 2019 10:00pm-10:47pm EST

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on the gathering we created on the second floor of this pool building and the guesthouse. >> one of the magical things about the annenberg community beach house is the beautiful connection between the past and present. we have really been able to bring the history of these three remarkable individuals who developed this property originally, marion davies, william randolph hearst and the architect, julia morgan. they created such a legacy and still having the guesthouse and original pool for the mansion is a spectacular way to connect the past and present. that really a way to bring history to life. toour cities tour traveled southern california to learn more about the rich history.
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learn more at c-span.org/citiestour. you are watching american tv.ory >> previously on american artifacts, united states holocaust memorial museum chairman daniel green gave us a tour of the exhibit he created. part one led up to the -- part one covered the lead up to world war ii. we learned about the america first movement and how the united states responded to nazi persecution and murder of jews as some of the atrocities became public knowledge. this is about 45 minutes. 1,iel: in 1939, on september germany invaded poland and world war ii breaks out that week. what is on america's mind in 1935 is staying out of war. you see deep concern about
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spies, nazi spies in the united states. at the time, called a fifth column. if theys are asked believe that germany is starting to organize a fifth column, and 71% say yes. you start to see these fear of spies play out in our popular culture and in our political culture. the first american movie, big studio movie to take on nazism is a warner bros. movie. it's called "confessions of a nazi spy. it's based on a true story of a nazi spy ring in the united states. >> i am a nazi spy. i am one of thousands stationed in every part of the united states to steal the secrets of your national defense. there are spies stationed in all of the navy yard's in brooklyn,
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philadelphia, newport news. in the factories in places like buffalo, seattle, washington. in youran inspector factories. a trial in the united states federal court, brought to the attention of a startled this amazing danger to its safety and freedom. daniel: even as americans are thing about the threat of nazism. they are worried about nazis here, on our shores. hoover, the head of the fbi, writing in popular magazines about stamping out the spies. by the time we go to war, you will see posters like this. the warning from the fbi about spies and saboteurs. and we were fascinated to find, reported in the washington post, that the fbi was getting 3000 tips a day by 1940 about spies. this influences american popular
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culture, but it deeply influences the state department as well. this man, breckenridge long is the head of the visa division for the state department. he is in charge of overseeing all the issuance of visas. there is no doubt there is a deep culture of anti-semitism. -- anti-semitism in the u.s. state department in the 1940's. long himself, if you read his diary, you see deeply anti-semitic sentiment about wanting to keep jews out. partly what the state department is doing is citing this national security concern. the secretary of state sends this instruction to all the consulates in 1940, saying they -- saying that any application for a visa has to be examined with extreme care. if you have any doubt about the applicant, keep them out. the state department institutes a series of rule changes in the
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summer of 1941 that effectively takes a door that is slightly open to refugees and slams it shut. they use these national security concerns about spies. they argue we can't be letting refugees in if there is any doubt that they may be spying for nazi germany. that fear of spies really does get ginned up in the united states through the actions of hoover, the fbi, as well as through our popular culture. also on america's mind is staying out of the war. america's get asked a version of this question almost every week between 1939 and pearl harbor. as western940, european nations are falling to nazi-ism, americans are asked whether we should declare war on 93% of them say no. in the aftermath of world war i,
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there is not appetite among the americans to go to war. the loudest, most influential isolationist organization is the america first committee. posteru see a propaganda from the america first committee saying that war's first casualty will be liberty itself. america first was founded by a group of students at yale university in the fall of 1940. they moved to chicago and found their rank-and-file in the midwest. america first is an isolationist organization that wants to stay out of war. protect the borders. charles lindbergh becomes the loudest spokesperson for the america first committee. lindbergh was one of the most famous americans, maybe the most famous american, after his solo flight across the atlantic and the kidnapping and murder of his child in the 1930's. this is a really powerful artifact in the show. lindbergh had gone to nazi tomany in october of 1938
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advise them on their air force and their airpower. he meets with hermann goehring, one of the top nazi officials, goehring gives him this, one of the top service crosses of the germans. know igh says, i didn't was getting this. and he is pressured after kristallnacht to give this award back. we borrowed the lindbergh's diary from the archive at yale university. you see lindbergh writing about a speech he gave in des moines, iowa, on september 11, 1941. during this speech, he asks, who wants us to go to war? he lists three groups. he says the british wants to go -- wants us to go to war. this makes sense. france has fallen, western
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european nations have fallen. he says -- the british are the last line of defense. he says fdr was to go to war, calls fdr a warmonger. third he says, and the jews want us to go to war. he cites his belief that america has been a tolerant land for jews, and he basically issues a threat to jews in america. we go to a war that is perceived as a jewish war, that tolerance might fade. he talks about jews controlling hollywood and the banking system. i think what he is doing there is saying out loud what many americans believe at the time. one of the loudest and most effective critics of lindbergh theodor geisel , who we now
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know as dr. seuss. newspaperee on this and on this screen are multiple cartoons published by p.m. that attacking the isolationism. here, you see lindbergh on the calls a pile that geisel nazi anti-semitic stink wagon." shoveling this nazi propaganda. you see geisel with this fantastic attack on america first. here he is showing the ostrich of isolationism ringing the hand s that should be hitler's's neck. in the aftermath, he draws this fantastic cartoon about america first. you see the grandmotherly figure
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with an america first sweater reading a scary children's story called adolf the wolf to these children. she is reading, the wolf chewed up the children and spit out their bones, but those were foreign children and it didn't really matter. what we do in this film is take on fdr's presidential leadership. between the period that europe goes to war in september 1939 and pearl harbor in december 1941. one of the things we want visitors to think about here is when europe goes to war, americans want to stay out of that war and americans don't want to let in refugees. fdr spends all of his political capital during this period, trying to move public opinion from isolation to intervention. he's doing this as he's making the unprecedented choice to run for a third term, which is unpopular among many americans. but the american government and fdr doesn't spend any time
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trying to move public opinion on that refugee question. this film looks at the presidential leadership instituting the first peacetime draft in u.s. history, running for a third term, tried to get the lend to support lease bill to arm the allies, and ultimately moving us to the brink of intervention by the time of pearl harbor in december of 1941. this is the attack on pearl harbor on december 7 of 1941 that pulls us into war. what you see in this exhibition is one of our first responses to pearl harbor is to round up our own japanese-american citizens and forcibly remove them from the west coast. nearly 120,000 people of japanese ancestry are removed. two-thirds of those are citizens.
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this again speaks to national security fears. this is one of fdr's worst moments as president, issuing the executive order that allowed these citizens to be forcibly removed. and it's done in the name of national security, a fear of spies among these communities. interestingly, some americans call these places concentration camps. you see congressman john rankin in 1942 saying, i'm in favor of capturing every japanese person now and putting them in concentration camps. the naacp's magazine writes about american concentration camps, and says color is the only possible reason why thousands of american citizens of japanese ancestry are in concentration camps. the mainstream press, by contrast -- life magazine calls a camp in independence, , a scenic spot of
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lonely loveliness. you see some of the racist anti-japanese propaganda. these are japanese hunting licenses, or licenses and pins encouraging people, as it says here, "shoot a jap a day." the defense stamp away. -- way. is american public opinion very much for rounding up and removing japanese aliens away from the pacific coast. you see that 93% of americans argue that that is the right thing to do. we wanted to show in the exhibition how americans saw nazism during war time. see images of hitler that americans would have seen. there is a range of images. there is one making fun of hitler on the cover of the new yorker, comparing him to the wicked witch of the west. there's a pincushion that a pin ins you to stick
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hitler's rear-end. as a skunk, hillary pincushion, hitler on a toilet bowl. he also see american heroes, like captain america. this is a reproduction of the first issue of captain america, with captain america punching out hitler. as a madman hitler and a murderer. a wanted poster, buttons that showed him wanted for murder, and even one with a string on it saying, let's pull together, where you can lynch hitler. there is a range of opinions about hitler, but he remains a key figure in our popular culture. what you see here in a poster like this one, with the dagger
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going through the bible, is as ansm being portrayed , as anf christianity enemy of american values. what you don't see here is nazism as an enemy of european jews. america's go to war to fight fascism, to defeat nazi germany, but the message is not to rescue jews. the priority is not to rescue jews. that's an essential question we ask in this exhibition. why rescue of jews didn't become priority during wartime? one way to think about this is, the nazis fight two wars. they fight a war against the allies and a war to destroy the jews. in response, the allies decide to fight one war, they fight a war to fight nazi-ism, not
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rescue the jews. you see this in the poster art, in the messages that these are government-issued posters. you see it in hollywood films. most hollywood films don't mention jews specifically. there are some deeply anti-nazi interventionist films. films like "the mortal storm," or "foreign correspondents," or "sergeant york," "casablanca" maybe most famous film of the 20th century, is a film about refugees stranded, waiting for visas. what you don't see is a direct mention of jews. the exception is charlie chaplin's "great dictator." a slapstick film in many ways, which he makes independent from the studio system. here's a great clip where chaplin plays a fictional dictator of a fictional country. here you see him addressing the
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nation. using a combination of english, german, and nonsense. >> [indiscernible] daniel: we were fortunate enough to be able to borrow a costume that chaplin wore from the great dictator, which you see here, as well as an oscar that gary cooper won for best actor for his portrayal in "sergeant york." "sergeant york" is a world war i film, where it's set in world war i, but made and released out of 1941, arguing he began as a pacifist, and then learned sometimes you need to fight to
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preserve democracy. and americans seeing that film would have understood this world war i story as a commentary on the necessity to intervene in world war ii. one of the things you see in "casablanca" is a language of concentration camps, without the specific mention of jews. one of the best scenes is when rick, humphrey bogart's character, learns that victor laszlo is coming to rick's cafe in casablanca, and rick says he's escaped from a concentration camp, the nazis have been chasing him all over europe. bogart is sure that laszlo will figure out how to get visas. but the character doesn't read as jewish, as many of the characters in casablanca don't. there was a reluctance in the hollywood studio system to specifically mention jews, even though you hear about a language of concentration camps in movies like "casablanca." >> you been chasing them all over europe.
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daniel: by 1942, america's at war, and our nation has changed significantly. our military has doubled in size, you have women entering the workforce. we still go to war with a segregated army, but african launch a double-v campaign, arguing for victory against fascism abroad and against racism at home. one of the points we wanted to make to visitors is, its in 1942 that americans learned about what nazis called the final solution. we are showing how that information makes it from the u.s. government to the u.s. public between august and november of 1942. this man is the world jewish congress representative in switzerland. he learns through a german industrialist that the nazis have a plan to murder all of the jews in europe. he sends this information, he wants to get it to rabbi stephen
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wise, one of the leading reform rabbis in the united states and the head of the world jewish congress. he's trying to get the information through the state department. the content of this letter is harrowing. he says, in hitler's headquarters, a plan is being considered to wipe out in one blow from 3.5 million to 4 million jews this autumn. what the state department writes is, they have no information which would confirm this rumor, and believe it is one of the many unreliable war rumors circulating in europe today. this is august 13 of 1942. the state department has written on here, "do not send." they blocked this information, because they dismiss it as an unreliable war rumor. he also sent the information to this man, a member of british parliament, samuel silverman. here, you see a facsimile of the
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toegram that is then sent rabbi wise in pennsylvania. the information does make it to wise from silverman that there is a plan, as silverman writes, to 4 million should after deprecation and concentration in east -- wise goes to the state department to see under-secretary of state sumner welles. wells says don't go public. the state department takes three months to confirm throughout the fall of 1942. wells calls wise back to the state department and says it's true. he allows wise to talk to the press about this. by november 1942, you get articles like this across the country.
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this was the "l.a. times" from 1942 -- nazis wiping out jews in cold blood. the u.s. government in the next month issues a declaration, all the allied nations issue a declaration against what they call cold-blooded extermination. that language is in this declaration in december of 1942. it's front-page news for a short time. americans will hear edward r. murrow saying millions of human beings, most of them jews, are being gathered up with ruthless efficiency and murdered. we can't say americans didn't know. we didn't have all the details. but if you think about, what is the crux of the story? the story is that the nazis are deporting jews to the east for mass murder. that story we had, and that
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story was reported even if all the details were not known. it doesn't mean that all americans believed it. americans are asked in january of 1943 by gallup, just months after this became public, they are asked, do you believe the stories the 2 million jews at that point had been murdered? the results were about half and half. 40% of americans believe it was true. what we are showing here is how the american magazines picked up that story. you see a chart like this in pm magazine, a graphic in pm magazine from august of 1943, showing country by country how many jews had been murdered and how many remained. you also see pictures from newsweek magazine, soviet photos that had leaked out of remains at one of the concentration camps.
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victims' shoes. even himmler, heinrich himmler on the cover of the magazine. the article and interior reads that the gestapo had organized a program of extermination without parallel. multiple american magazines are covering this story. we don't have a name for the crime. winston churchill famously says, we are in the presence of a crime without a name. we wanted to tell the story of this man, who coins the word "genocide." he defines genocide as the deliberate destruction of a nation or ethnic group. in 1944, the washington post runs an editorial simply titled "genocide," which speaks about the atrocities going on.
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i think part of americans' doubt and their unwillingness to believe what was happening when it was happening is the fact that we don't have a name for the crime until very late. genocide is coined during the war as the mass murder of jews is going on. in this animated map, we are mapping two things on each other. the nazi killing process and the movement of the allied troops. you see here that by d-day, nazi germany has murdered more than 5 million jews already. the swastikas are the six major killing centers that the nazis are operating. the blue is the advance of the allied troops. it was important for us to put the timeline of the holocaust and the war together. when news becomes public in november 1942 about what the nazis call the final solution,
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that's the moment that our troops are just landing in north africa in operation torch. we don't have the military means to reach the death camps, to reach the killing centers. as you just saw, by june of 1944, when u.s. and other allied troops are finally landing on the coast of normandy, that's very late in the holocaust. more than 5 million jews are dead. when we ask in this exhibition, what more could have been done, we are trying to be very careful about showing what was militarily possible. historians in this field frequently debate the question about whether the rail lines leading to auschwitz should have been bombed or the camp itself or the crematorium should have been bombed. we take up that question later, but what this map is supposed to do is provide a foundation of thinking about what was militarily possible.
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by byas not possible 1942. 1944, it is absolutely possible. but the u.s. government decides not to do it. we are looking in this last section of the exhibition at individuals who are trying to pressure the u.s. government to take action. one of the great stories is this man, who works for the polish underground. he is 27 years old or in his late 20's in 1943. the polish underground smuggles him into the warsaw ghetto. he witnesses the transit of jews to one of the killing centers. nine months later, he's in the oval office, talking to fdr about this. you see fdr's appointment book, that the polish ambassador is coming to the white house with this man. he meets with fdr, tells him about these atrocities that he has witnessed and pleads with fdr at the end of the meeting, what can i tell the polish people? fdr says, tell them we shall win the war.
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that speaks directly to u.s. government priorities. the priority is always the defeat of nazism and not the rescue of jews. the u.s. government unfortunately see is what we would see today as humanitarian missions as not essential to the war aims. they can be summed up as rescue through victory, that you stop the killings by stopping the killers. he writes this fantastic book about the story of the secret state, published toward the end of the war. this is a book-of-the-month club book in the united states by he's writing in popular 1945. magazines, this article polish death camps about what he is -- what he has seen. the american public could have picked this up in 1944 and read this article with really harrowing detail, deeply disturbing details about some of the atrocities that karsky had
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witnessed. another force of pressure on the government is this man. peter bergson. that is actually a pseudonym. his real name was hillel kook. he works in many different ways to advocate for government action on behalf of jews. he worked with members of congress to get them to introduce a rescue resolution. ultimately, he is successful in getting members of congress to get that rescue resolution through. he also stages a pageant called "we will never die." he works with some of the leading hollywood personalities of the era. it is produced by billy rose. the story of this pageant, you see a still from the pageant up here. he tells the story of jewish history in this pageant. and the end of the story, the end of this pageant is the
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murder of all the jews in europe . there is this haunting refrain, remember us, remember us, remember us. there is this assumption that the nazis are going to successfully murder all the jews in europe, unless there is action by the u.s. government. the pageant was staged across the country. it plays in madison square garden, at the hollywood bowl. it played in constitution hall in the spring of 1943. eleanor roosevelt goes to the pageant. multiple supreme court justices go to the pageant. a couple hundred members of congress go. ect rewrites the end of the pageant for the performance in constitution home -- hall. he says, you are the people who have the power to do something
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about this, are you going to do something to rescue the jews of europe? he is also writing full-page newspaper ads, incendiary full-page newspaper ads to spur action. this is a response to a refugee conference. the bermuda conference, a conference between great britain and the united states, a gathering in april 1943 that was really for show. there was no intention of changing refugee policy. but they wanted to be able to say they had met. they are calling for mass action on behalf of the jewish victims in europe. what we show here is breckinridge long comes back to the story, the head of the visa division for the state department. long goes to congress in november 1943 and tells him the -- tells them the state department had already admitted 580,000 refugees. that claim is absolutely false. we had admitted roughly 200,000 refugees. long goes to congress.
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this is secret testimony. he says, we were bound by immigration laws, we did everything we could possibly do. a congressman from brooklyn calls out long as a liar. he asks him to quit, he calls amount for lying about the number of refugees that had been let in. he gives this fantastic statement in december of 1943. if men of the temperament of breckinridge long were in control of the immigration administration we may as well , take down that plaque from the statue of liberty and black of the lamp beside the golden door. he speaking to this tension that is so central to this exhibition. the tension between american ideals, thinking of ourselves as a land of refuge and nation of immigrants, but at this moment of crisis being so closed to immigrants and to rescue refugees. the treasury department, lawyers in the treasury department also discovered the state department is actively obstructing information about the murder of jews from making it to intended
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recipients in the united states, and actively obstructing aid. they go to their boss, the secretary of the treasury, with a report, that they call, a report on the acquiescence of this government, the u.s. government, in the murder of the jews. they asked him to take that information to fdr. but thenged the title, information here is harrowing. the first line, one of the greatest crimes in history, the slaughter of the jewish people , is continuing unabated. they are asking fdr for a refugee policy. the united states government did not have a refugee policy. they take this report to fdr in january of 1944, and on january 22nd, he issues an executive order that establishes the war refugee board. it is an interagency effort
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between the state department, war department, and treasury department. their charge is to rescue jews. as long as it doesn't impede the war effort. and that, as long as it doesn't impede the war effort, is a key provision and key fact that will be debated. and will have deep implications for the remaining year-plus of the war. the board coordinates with refugee organizations. they work with international refugee aid organizations. the eight people, like a swedish diplomat known for going into hungary and issuing visa and protection papers to hunger area and jews. first is about the question about whether or not there should be direct bombing of auschwitz. the war refugee board was receiving recommendations from jewish organizations and from
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the american public about how to save lives. among these recommendations was bomb the rail lines leading to auschwitz, bomb the crematorium themselves. the war refugee board received this request many times. this man, a treasury department lawyer who had become the head of the war refugee board, initially in the summer of 1944, forwards this to the war department without comment. 1944, he'smber of convinced this should happen. he says i strongly recommend the war department give series -- give serious consideration to the possibility of destroying the execution chambers and crematoria through direct bombing action. he is writing that on november 8 of 1944 to the assistant secretary of war. mccloy responds as he always does, by saying this is not a
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war aim. the war department consistently said we will study the problem, or we have studied the problem. there is not evidence the war department deeply studied this problem. mccloy always says it's militarily not possible. we know by 1944 that wasn't true. the war department was authorizing and running bombing raids on german industrial targets less than five miles from auschwitz. so we've studied it, it's impractical. then he always says, and it's not a war aim, not a war priority. and that for the war department was true. they saw this as a diversion from the war effort. this is one of the most controversial and difficult topics in memory of americans in response to the holocaust. there is a lot of moral outrage to bombericans failure
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the crematoria. what we are trying to show in the exhibition is what did happen. not what we think should have happened. the war refugee board made these multiple requests, and the war department always said that's not a priority. and it was not a priority for them. that was consistent with the u.s. government's war effort. one thing the war refugee board does is bring in 982 refugees to a camp in new york. you are seeing universal newsreel footage of refugees arriving in this camp in new york in august of 1944. these are refugees who had been in italy and had been brought boardy the refugee outside of the immigration system. they are not admitted as immigrants. they are held as guests.
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what you see here is a boy on one side of the fence talking to residents on the other side of the fence. all 982 had a sign papers that said they would go back to europe when the war was over. this was the only instance during the nazi period where the u.s. government brings over a mass of refugees outside of the immigration quota system. they hold them at this camp behind barbed wire fences. they hold him until february of 1946, until well after the war ends. harry truman's president by that time and says, we cannot send these people back. ultimately they are admitted to the united states has immigrants. but it is the only time the united state government makes an exception outside of our immigration policy to admit a mass of refugees. this is a piece of the fence
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that has been lent to us, the barbed wire fence that surrounded those refugees. they published their own newspaper called the ontario chronicle. what you are seeing here is a cartoon from the ontario chronicle showing the before and after, the excitement of the refugees as they arrived in new york harbor, seeing the statue of liberty on august 5, 1944. one year later, they are still held behind us barbed wire fence , and the promise of liberty seems to be at such a distance. this is an illustration that appeared in the newspaper in august of 1945. drawn by one of the refugees. this speaks to the contrast we want to get out through the exhibition between the promise of liberty and the idea of america as a land of refugee and the political reality on the ground that made it difficult for americans to make good on
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that promise. we end the exhibition with a number of contrasts in april and may of 1945. in april, you see here that american soldiers encounter nazi concentration camps. you will see in a moment eisenhower walking through a sub -camp in april of 1945. this is happening at the same moment fdr dies. fdr had been president 12 years. many americans, it's hard for them to imagine fdr not being president. you have that contrast going on. you importantly, in may, have americans here celebrating the defeat of germany. we went to war to defeat fascism, and americans celebrate that, the sacrifices that are made during war. what we wanted visitors to think about at this point in the
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exhibition is that winning the war doesn't solve the refugee problem. you are left with millions of displaced persons in europe. americans are still very reluctant to let in these displaced persons. this is a poll from december of 1945, showing that only 5% of americans by december of 1945, 6 months after the defeat of nazism, want to let in more refugees than we did before the war. the other key at the end of the exhibition to think about, this is times square in may of 1945. then again, we are showing some of the press coverage from april and may of 1945. americans are so putting the -- are celebrating the fact that hitler is dead. you have an american giving a mocking nazi salute. this magazine spread on atrocities found in german concentration camps is may 7, 1945. there are some key things to
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think about here. you see a boy walking on the side of the road, littered with victims. these pictures on the right side of the spread are from buchenwald. life magazine says in this article that americans had been hearing stories about german brutality for 12 years, and now they can no longer doubt it. why? we finally have visual evidence. what you have seen throughout the exhibition is americans had a lot of information about the threat of nazism, about the persecution and murder of jews, but not a lot of it was visual evidence. i think for americans in the 1940's, seeing is believing. americans start to see images like this in life magazine, they might go to the newsreels and see harrowing footage with death mills.azi death
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>> six furnaces, each holding bodies, used in cremating the dead. don't look away. here, a mere handful were found alive when the americans overran the area. war is not a pretty thing at best, but no words can expressed disgustd's discussed -- at germany's organized carnage. >> this starts to push against that doubt that had always been there. americans were asked in 1944, for example, do you believe the germans are murdering jews in concentration camps? by the end of 1944, 76 of per -- 76% of americans say they believe it. they are asked about the numbers, and what the polling shows is americans can't grasp the scale and the scope of the crime until it's over. unfortunately that doubt remains.
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life magazine saying, for the first time now we have irrefutable evidence speaks to that doubt. the other key to this is that the captions refer to the victims that you are seeing as prisoners of all nationalities. but it never mentions jewish victims. that thread even remains as nazism is defeated. that thread of not putting jewish victims front and center remains in some of the american press. at the close of the exhibition, we come back to rafael, the man who coined the word genocide. limkin himself is a refugee from poland, jewish, who lost 49 relatives. he spends all of his energy trying to get genocide
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recognized as an international crime. in his autobiography, which he wrote in pieces over the course of the late 1950's, one of the things he wrote was about the importance of telling the story to the american people, that is werer europe, naz writing the book of death. and importance of repeating the story in american churches, on the porches of their homes. that is an important central to the mission of the u.s. holocaust memorial museum to continue telling the story as a warning. the haunting part of this quote for me is lemkin saying, i'm sure they would understand me. part of what is central to this exhibition is america's lack of understanding of this crime as it was happening. we have a lot of information and that information didn't always translate to clear understanding. today, with the benefit of hindsight, we have the clear understanding, that this exhibition tries to push against
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hindsight, and say what do americans understand at the time, how do they understand their roles and responsibilities as american citizens to fight against nazism as it's happening? >> this was part two of a two-part american artifacts. you can view part one and all other american history tv programs online at c-span.org/history. >> this weekend, american history tv is joining our spectrum cable partners to showcase the history of santa monica, california. to learn more about the cities on our current tour, visit c-span.org/citiestour. we continue now with our look at the history of santa monica. kim: i think to live here in santa monica, you enjoy incredible weather. we have over 30

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